Accessing Economy Local Storage

Updated: May 31, 2019

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This demo showcases different options for accessing economy storage, including command line and API options, and how to handle the migration of large datasets to Economy Local.

General Limitations and Notes

  • Files larger than 5GB require segmentation. The value indicated with the “-S” argument is the size that files will be split into on the object store. A segment size may be any value up to 5GB. A reasonable default value is -S 2G which sets the maximum segment size to 2 GB, which means a file of 10GB size will be split into 5 segments.
  • using multiple segments will increase upload speeds (and download speeds in the future), setting the segment size to 1GB on a 10GB file can increase the theoretical upload performance 10 fold
  • Swift commands that fail don’t set a return code, which could complicate scripting.
  • You can’t delete a directory in a container. When you delete the last file from the directory, swift deletes the directory automatically. However, swift will delete a container with files still in it, so be careful what you delete.

Note: Additional details on migrating large data to Economy Local are available below.

Command Line and API Options for Accessing Economy Local Storage

Access to data stored in Fred Hutch resources that are object stores can be achieved via command line tools or the API. This is an overview of available tools that are related to accessing Economy Local storage, starting with the ones you will most likely use and that are best supported.

Swift Commander

Using the swc command is the simplest way of accessing the Swift object store. The tool includes easy to use sub commands such as swc upload and swc download as well as simplified versions of standard unix tools such as ls, cd, rm, etc. By using swc you can ignore most of the peculiarities of the Swift object storage system and (almost) work with it like a traditional file system. It is the best option for HPC scripting and automation.

First, let’s invoke the swc command and see what it has to offer:

gizmod16:~> swc
*** Swift credentials not set. ***
Please execute 'sw2account <accountname>' to get credentials.
Use 'sw2account --save <accountname>' to set them as default.

Swift requires certain environment variables to be set for each user based on the PI’s group. You can easily set them by using sw2account lastname_f and providing your HutchNet ID and password.

Now let’s try running swc again, still without any command options, you are prompted for your HutchNet password:

petersen@rhino:~$ swc

Swift Commander (swc) allows you to easily work with a swift object store.
swc supports sub commands that attempt to mimic standard unix file system tools.
These sub commands are currently implemented: (Arguments in square brackets are

swc upload <src> <targ>   -  copy file / dirs from a file system to swift
swc download <src> <targ> -  copy files and dirs from swift to a file system
swc cd <folder>           -  change current folder to <folder> in swift
swc ls [folder]           -  list contents of a folder - or the current one
swc mkdir <folder>        -  create a folder (works only at the root)
swc rm <path>             -  delete all file paths that start with <path>
swc pwd                   -  display the current swift folder name
swc cat|more|less <file>  -  download a file to TMPDIR and view with cat, more or less
swc vi|emacs|nano <file>  -  download a file to TMPDIR and edit it with vi|emacs or nano
swc chgrp <group> <fld.>  -  grant/remove rw access to current swift account or container
swc rw <group> <folder>   -  add rw access to current swift account or container
swc ro <group> <folder>   -  add ro access to current swift account or container
swc list <folder> [filt]  -  list folder content (incl. subfolders) and filter
swc search <str> <folder> -  search for a string in text files under /folder
swc openwith <cmd> <file> -  download a file to TMPDIR and open it with <cmd>
swc header <file>         -  display the header of a file in swift
swc meta <file>           -  display custom meta data of a file in swift
swc mtime <file>          -  show the original mtime of a file before uploaded
swc size <folder>         -  show the size of a swift or a local folder
swc compare <l.fld> <fld> -  compare size of a local folder with a swift folder
swc hash <locfile> <file> -  compare the md5sum of a local file with a swift file
swc arch <src> <targ>     -  create one tar archive for each folder level
swc unarch <src> <targ>   -  restore folders that have been archived
swc auth                  -  show current storage url and auth token
swc env                   -  show authentication env vars (ST_ and OS_)
swc clean                 -  remove current authtoken credential cache

swc upload /local/folder /swift/folder
swc upload --symlinks /local/folder /swift/folder (save symlinks)
swc compare /local/folder /swift/folder
swc download /swift/folder /scratch/folder
swc download /swift/folder $TMPDIR
swc rm /archive/some_prefix
swc more /folder/some_file.txt
swc openwith emacs /folder/some_file.txt

OK, we see that there are some options, the swc command has nearly 30 sub commands. Let’s upload a folder called ‘testing’ that is stored somewhere locally in Fast. The target folder in Swift is called /test:

petersen@rhino04:~/sc$ swc upload ./testing /test
*** uploading ./test ***
*** to Swift__ADM_SciComp:/test/ ***
executing:swift upload --changed --segment-size=2147483648 --use-slo --segment-container=".segments_test" --header="X-Object-Meta-Uploaded-by:petersen" --object-name="" "test" "./test"
*** please wait... ***

Let’s make sure that the data is really there by comparing the size of the local folder with the swift folder:

petersen@rhino02:~/sc$ swc compare ./testing /test
    checking swift folder test ...
    3,180,498,696 bytes (2.962 GB) in test (swift)
    checking posix folder ./testing/ ...
    3,180,498,696 bytes (2.962 GB) in ./testing
OK! The size of ./testing and /test is identical!

Now let’s download a subfolder of that folder /test to our scratch file system for further processing:

petersen@rhino04:~/sc$ swc download /test/fld1 /fh/scratch/delete30/lastname_f/tmp
...downloading /test/fld1, please wait...
executing:swift download --prefix="fld1" test
fld1/file11 [auth 0.123s, headers 0.162s, total 0.170s, 0.000 MB/s]
fld1/file12 [auth 0.118s, headers 0.164s, total 0.171s, 0.000 MB/s]
fld1/fld2/file21 [auth 0.123s, headers 0.158s, total 0.169s, 0.000 MB/s]

Please check out the swc page on GitHub for additional details:

Amazon Web Services S3 Compatibility Layer

We can use AWS tools such as awscli, the Python module boto3 or the R package aws.s3 to access Swift through the AWS S3 compatibility layer. We have generated detailed docs for using awscli, boto3 and aws.s3 in our Resource Library section. Prior to using these tools, hwoever, we need to first setup the profile in ~/.aws/config and ~/.aws/credentials. To help with this just run the script s3cfg on rhino.

> s3cfg
Please go to
to get your PI/department S3 compatible credentials for Economy local (swift)
Edit section [] in ~/.aws/credentials and enter
aws_access_key_id = [account]
aws_secret_access_key = [key]

Please run command: source ~/.aws/

After running s3cfg you need to first put the credentials you can get from toolbox into ~/.aws/credentials. When you are done you can simply source some environment variables from script ~/.aws/ :

    > source ~/.aws/

Now you should be able to use the awscli commands as documented here to list all your directories in Economy Local.

    > aws s3 ls

    2009-02-03 08:45:09 nyc-taxi-data
    2009-02-03 08:45:09 public
    2009-02-03 08:45:09 s3ql
    2009-02-03 08:45:09 sc_software

If you would like to use both Economy Local (Swift) and Economy Cloud (AWS S3) it may be best not to set Economy Local as your default profile:

    > unset AWS_PROFILE

and instead use the –profile option for Economy Local:

    > aws s3 ls --profile

Swift standard client (Python)

The Swift client allows you to read and write files in your containers directly without mounting the container in the file system. This is particularly handy for scripting and automation. The swift client is used by swc ‘under the hood’ and offers more options than swc but it is also slightly more difficult to use. Do not use this tool if swc meets your needs.

The swift client operates similar to ftp or scp and can be used in batch mode. These operations are:

  • delete: delete a container or objects within a container
  • download: download objects from containers
  • list: lists the containers for the account or the objects for a container
  • post: updates meta information for the account, container, or object
  • stat: displays information for the account, container, or object
  • upload: uploads files or directories to the given container
  • capabilities: lists features/capabilities of the swift cluster
  • tempurl: creates a temporary url with expiration date that can be published within the Fred Hutch network

You can supply your credentials on the command line, but this is discouraged as it can expose your password to any other user on the system. The easiest way to get credentials to Swift storage on a SciComp system is using sw2account with the id of the PI as an argument (sw2account lastname_f) . It is recommend that you use sw2account to save the credentials of the PI account you mostly work with.

    $ sw2account --save groudine_m

With those environment variables set, the connection can be tested with the “stat” subcommand:

$ swift stat
Account: AUTH_username
Containers: 0
Objects: 0
    Bytes: 0
Accept-Ranges: bytes
X-Timestamp: 1386202905.14525
X-Trans-Id: tx93f905a47d044277b276c-0052a0ca26
Content-Type: text/plain; charset=utf-8

The “post” subcommand creates a new container into which we can “upload” a file. The “list” subcommand rather obviously displays the contents of the indicated object:

$ ls -l samplefile.tgz
-rw-rw-r-- 1 user group 8134841 Nov 12 09:12 samplefile.tgz
$ swift post newcontainer
$ swift list
$ swift list newcontainer
$ swift upload -S 2G newcontainer samplefile.tgz
$ swift list newcontainer

You can upload an entire folder structure using the Swift upload command. Swift will recreate the entire folder structure you send on the command line. If you run swift upload -S 2g newcontainer /fh/fast/lastname_f/myfolder it will create the entire folder structure /fh/fast… under newcontainer. if you just want myfolder to show up under mycontainer you need to cd to /fh/fast/lastname_f and then run swift upload newcontainer myfolder.

download and delete work as you might expect:

“download” and untar a compressed file directly into Gizmo’s scratch file system (–output - sends the downloaded file directly to STDOUT )

    $ swift download newcontainer samplefile.tar.gz --output - | tar xzv -C $SCRATCH/$SLURM_JOB_ID

Python (swiftclient)

Instead of using the swift command from the unix shell one can also access swift directly from python using the swiftclient python module which is also used by the swift command line client. This is a quick example that writes 100 objects / files to a swift container called prj1. create this container by using the command swift post prj1

#! /usr/bin/env python
# -*- encoding: utf-8 -*-
import os, sys, random
from swiftclient import client as swiftclient

if len(sys.argv) > 1:

object_base_name = "%s-array" % arg
content_base = "asdasdfasdfafaf"
container_name = "prj1"

AUTH = os.environ.get('ST_AUTH')
USER = os.environ.get('ST_USER')
PASSWORD = os.environ.get('ST_KEY')

post_url, post_token = swiftclient.Connection(
    '%s' % (AUTH),
    PASSWORD, auth_version=1).get_auth()

#headers = get_headers
#headers['x-auth-token'] = post_token
headers = {'x-auth-token': post_token}
sync_to = post_url + '/' + container_name

for i in range(100):
    x = random.random()
    object_name = "%s-%s" % (object_base_name,i)
    content = "%s-%s" % (content_base,x)
    swiftclient.put_object(sync_to, name=object_name, headers=headers,

Other Access Methods

There are many other tools out there that support object storage systems. Swiftstack supports the Swift API and the more common S3 API. To get your credentials for these access methods please use this link and enter the name of the PI or department account account (e.g. lastname_f). You may be prompted for your hutchnet ID password.

If you have permissions to see the credentials you will get 3 entries:

 "account": "Swift_lastname_f",
 "key": "abf47sfj48sfrjsrg8usrgj",
 "password": "Huew4jv&jfwvjsdg"

For tools that use S3 protocol you need account and key. Use the entry in account for “access key id” and the entry in ‘key’ for “secret key id”. Connect these tools to

For tools that use the Swift protocol you need the account, a password, and an authentication endpoint (a URL used for authenticating your credentials). Use for this.

How to migrate large data to Economy Local

The remainder of this document aims to provide some guidance for researchers interested in creating data archives in Economy Local. Data archive in this document is intended to mean a long term dataset storage location where larger (>1TB) datasets can be stored, perhaps as read only for your group.

Data Sources

Depending on where the data is being migrated from, different methods work best for archiving datasets in Economy Local.


Web Based Resources

AWS S3 Transfer Bucket

How to set up an AWS S3 transfer bucket to receive data from sources such as sequencing centers, etc.

Physical Drives

In some cases the choice is made to receive large datasets on physical drives, such as a hard drive mailed to you from a data provider. In this case, the physical drive might not be the best archive for a variety of reasons, but also is not an ideal working copy location either.

Physical Drive through Cyberduck to Economy Local

Other methods

Archiving Basics

Archive Types

Two common approaches for data archive types are those that are:

  • intended to be used as long term, occasional access, backup type archives where subsets of the entire data collection may be accessed independently.
    • Example: raw genomic data sets that need to be protected should any corruption or loss of the working copies occur.
  • intended to be used as long term, solely backup in which the entire data collection, should it be accessed, would be accessed in it’s entirety.
    • Example: a large number of files associated with a project with legal or funding related requirements for retention.

Archiving Steps

In order to create an archive the following considerations should be determined for any given dataset collection:


  • connect to the data source
  • migrate the data
  • check to ensure complete, uncorrupted data migration

Decide if you need assistance or if this is a task you can complete yourself.

Assisted Archiving

When requesting assistance with archiving your data, you may consider emailing helpdesk with the following information:

  • What the data source is
  • Where you’d like it to be archived
  • What type of archive you’d like to create
  • What permissions would you like to have on that archive

Using fh Archive Tools

Learn how archive data with little effort using the Gimzo cluster as a Helper.


Disclaimer for users who decide to delete data or put it on USB drives, etc: Before you decide to delete data in order to reduce storage costs please be aware that there may be data retention requirements imposed by the research funding sponsor, other contractual obligations, NIH data sharing and retention requirements (if applicable), and Center policies. Please contact the Office of the General Counsel if you are in doubt about the retention requirements for your data.


When we migrate large amounts of data we have different use cases. First (A) we assume that we have a folder mydata that contains medium to large size data. (Many files that are > 1MB up to multiple GB, scientific datasets, bam files, etc) After that we look for the best way (B) to store smaller files (e.g. source code and small text files, home directories of previous staff). For further instructions please see How to use Economy File Storage . PLEASE NOTE: copying thousands of small files to economy file will be slow and frustrating to manage. Please use method B) if you have many small files.

Still excited to do this yourself ? SciComp offers to move the data for you. All you have to do is send the Fast file source folder and the Economy File target folder and the PI account to use to SciComp @ and the data will be moved for you.

How do I find out if I have many small files ?

Please see File Data Management Tips and Tricks

How can I find my big files?

Please check the Scientific Storage Reporter Howto


create and switch to a folder where you keep the logs for your archiving activity. We recommend to use a folder Archivelogs in your home directory or in the fast file folder of the PI, eg. /fh/fast/lastname_f/archive/Archivelogs: use sw2account to switch to the economy file account of your PI. use ‘swc ls’ to make sure that the destination does not already exist. data at the destination will be overwritten without asking.

    > mkdir ~/Archivelogs
    > cd ~/Archivelogs
    > sw2account lastname_f
    > swc ls /archive/my/target

make sure that ‘Archivelogs’ is your current directory during the following archiving activities

A) Migrating medium to large size files

if you have not done yet make sure you use the right Economy file account with sw2account submit a swc upload command to gizmo. Please check if the target folder has a trailing slash or not as this influences where you data is copied to. Also make sure that you request enough wall clock time on gizmo (in the example below 7 days) check the progress of your copy job using the tail command on the –output file use the swc compare command to make sure that source and target folder have the same size. If the size differs you may run another swc upload job ask your colleaques if the data made it over correctly before you delete the source or ask IT to delete it for you.

    $ sbatch -J "copy" --mail-type=ALL -t 7-0 --output=myfolder-archive.txt --wrap="swc upload /myfolder /archive"
    $ tail -f myfolder-archive.txt
    $ swc compare myfolder /archive

    To make things even easier there is a wrapper script : fhUpload,  which will use one gizmof node per subfolder to move data:​​​​
    $ fhUpload /fh/fast/....../human/hg19/2013 /human/hg19/2013
    submitted batch job 27981126
    Upload job submitted to Gizmo. If you would like to monitor progress please use one of these commands:
    swc size "/human/hg19/2013"
    tail -f Upload_.....slurm.log.txt

To make things a little easier if you have a folder that has multiple subfolders with large files in them you can use the fhUploadSubfolders2Economy command, which will use one gizmof node per subfolder to move data:​​​​

    $ fhUploadSubfolders2Economy human/hg19/2013 /human/hg19/2013

    Will now submit a cluster job for each of these commands to Gizmo:

    swc upload human/hg19/2013/TCGA.HNSC /human/hg19/2013/TCGA.HNSC
    swc upload human/hg19/2013/TCGA.THCA /human/hg19/2013/TCGA.THCA
    swc upload human/hg19/2013/TCGA.READ /human/hg19/2013/TCGA.READ
    Do you want to continue? [y/N] n

if you do not want to use a separate cluster node for each sub directory you can also use the simpler fhUpload which submits an upload command for a single directory to a single Gizmo node and works very simple: $ fhUpload /myfolder /archive/folder

B) Migrating many small size files

After you have gone through the ‘Preparation’ steps above you just need to use the fhArchive command to archive many small files to Economy.

    $ fhArchive

    usage: fhArchive /directory/to/archive /swift/folder /scratch/folder
        ->  compress and archive a directory to economy file

You do need to pass a scratch folder as final argument to be able to compare the size of the source with the archive. As the archive is compressed it will have a different size. fhArchive uncompresses the archived data to scratch and then compares the sizes of the original data with the scratch folder. For example if you would like to archive a sub folder ProjectA in fast file for PI Jane Doe it would look like this:

    petersen@rhino1:/home…en/Archivelogs$ fhArchive /fh/fast/doe_j/ProjectA /archive/ProjectA /fh/scratch/delete30/doe_j/archive_verify
    Submitted batch job 45975375
    Archive job submitted to Gizmo. If you would like to monitor progress please use one of these commands:
    swc size "/archive/ProjectA"
    tail -f Archive__fh_fast_doe_j_ProjectA.slurm.log.txt

If the sizes of source and destination are not identical, use this command to search for errors:

    grep -B5 -A5 -i error Archive__fh_fast_doe_j_ProjectA.slurm.log.txt

It is strongly recommended to not archive more than 1 TB per fhArchive command because each fhArchive command uses only a single compute node with <= 100 MB/s throughput and 4 cores. It will be faster if you execute fhArchive multiple times, one for each sub directory e.g ProjectA/subproject1, ProjectA/subproject2, etc )

Checking results

when the job finishes you should get an email from slurm with a subject line similar to this one: subject: SLURM Job_id=45975375 Name=Arc__fh_fast_doe_j_ProjectA Ended, Run time 00:29:56, COMPLETED, ExitCode 0 then check the output file with the tail command, you want to see something like this:

    > tail -f Archive__fh_fast_doe_j_ProjectA.slurm.log.txt

        checking posix folder /fh/fast/doe_j/ProjectA ...
        81,024,500,435 bytes (75.460 GB) in /fh/fast/doe_j/ProjectA
        checking 2nd posix folder /fh/scratch/delete30/doe_j/archive_verify ...
        81,024,500,435 bytes (75.460 GB) in /fh/scratch/delete30/doe_j/archive_verify
    OK! The size of /fh/fast/doe_j/ProjectA and /fh/scratch/delete30/doe_j/archive_verify is identical!
    The data was uploaded and then uncompressed to scratch.
    The sizes of the source directory and the scratch directory should be identical.

    now you can delete everything under archive_verify. Note that fhArchive does not delete the orginal source data (e.g. under /fh/fast). You need to delete this data after you have confirmed that your data was archived successfully.
    > rm -rf /fh/scratch/delete30/doe_j/archive_verify
    Getting your data back is easy. Note that you do not need to restore the entire archive, you can also just restore a subdirectory. This is possible because "swc archive" creates one tar.gz archive per directory level.
    swc unarch /archive/ProjectA/subproject1 /fh/scratch/delete30/doe_j/ProjectA/subproject1

Updated: May 31, 2019

Edit this Page via GitHub       Comment by Filing an Issue      Have Questions? Ask them here.